The more idiomatic, concrete and descriptive English is, the more it is from Anglo-Saxon origins. The more intellectual and abstract English is, the more it contains Latin and French influences e. Cohabitation with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English; the later Norman occupation led to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Romance branch of the European languages.
This Norman influence entered English largely through the courts and government. Thus, English developed into a "borrowing" language of great flexibility and with a huge vocabulary.
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Dialects and accents vary amongst the four countries of the United Kingdom , as well as within the countries themselves. The various British dialects also differ in the words that they have borrowed from other languages. Around the middle of the 15th century, there were points where within the 5 major dialects there were almost ways to spell the word though. Following its last major survey of English Dialects — , the University of Leeds has started work on a new project.
The team are [a] sifting through a large collection of examples of regional slang words and phrases turned up by the "Voices project" run by the BBC , in which they invited the public to send in examples of English still spoken throughout the country. The BBC Voices project also collected hundreds of news articles about how the British speak English from swearing through to items on language schools. This information will also be collated and analysed by Johnson's team both for content and for where it was reported. Most people in Britain speak with a regional accent or dialect.
The Cockney rhyming slang can be and was initially intended to be difficult for outsiders to understand,  although the extent of its use is often somewhat exaggerated.
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Estuary English has been gaining prominence in recent decades: it has some features of RP and some of Cockney. In London itself, the broad local accent is still changing, partly influenced by Caribbean speech. Immigrants to the UK in recent decades have brought many more languages to the country. Surveys started in by the Inner London Education Authority discovered over languages being spoken domestically by the families of the inner city's schoolchildren.
As a result, Londoners speak with a mixture of accents, depending on ethnicity, neighbourhood, class, age, upbringing, and sundry other factors. Since the mass internal immigration to Northamptonshire in the s and its position between several major accent regions, it has become a source of various accent developments. In Northampton the older accent has been influenced by overspill Londoners.
There is an accent known locally as the Kettering accent, which is a transitional accent between the East Midlands and East Anglian. A few miles northwest in Leicestershire the slender "a" becomes more widespread generally. In addition, many British people can to some degree temporarily "swing" their accent towards a more neutral form of English at will, to reduce difficulty where very different accents are involved, or when speaking to foreigners.
Phonological features characteristic of British English revolve around the pronunciation of the letter R, as well as the dental plosive T and some diphthongs specific to this dialect. Once regarded as a Cockney feature, it has become much more widespread. In most areas of Britain outside Scotland and Northern Ireland , the consonant R is not pronounced if not followed by a vowel, lengthening the preceding vowel instead.
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This phenomenon is known as non-rhoticity. In these same areas, a tendency exists to insert an R between a word ending in a vowel and a next word beginning with a vowel. This is called the intrusive R. This could be understood as a merger, in that words that once ended in an R and words that did not are no longer treated differently. British dialects differ on the extent of diphthongisation of long vowels, with southern varieties extensively turning them into diphthongs, and with northern dialects normally preserving many of them.
As a comparison, North American varieties could be said to be in-between. A tendency not to use the morphological grammatical number in collective nouns , stronger in British English than in North American English,  exists.
This is namely treating them, that were once grammatically singular, as grammatically plural, that is: the perceived natural number prevails. This applies especially to nouns of institutions and groups made of many people. Arsenal have lost just one of 20 home Premier League matches against Manchester City.
Some dialects of British English use negative concords, also known as double negatives.
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Rather than changing a word or using a positive, words like nobody, not, nothing, and never would be used in the same sentence. The double negation follows the idea of two different morphemes, one that causes the double negation, and one that is used for the point or the verb. Pretty much, any proper English event involves tea. Mince pies or sausage rolls might accompany the tea party. Rather than breaking out the Lipton, which would be spat at by any visiting Brit, we suggest PG Tips that originated in the UK in the s.
Boxing Day Boxing Day follows Christmas day and is a nationally recognized holiday in the UK, also called a bank holiday. Maybe celebrate this one after work and get your shop on?
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You may also need A-levels or the equivalent. Academic criteria is set per campaign. In addition to academic studies, we look for candidates with good hand-eye co-ordination; so taking part in a wide range of sports or the odd computer game could be advantageous; a knowledge of current affairs and the commercial aspects of aviation; and a good ability to interact well with other people will benefit your application and your future career as an airline pilot.
No particular flying experience is required, although potential airline pilots who have endeavoured to achieve some flying or aviation experience, for example with the Air Training Corps, at a local flying club, gliding club, The Air League, Airpilots, or working at your local airport, would always be looked upon favourably by any potential training establishment or employer. Whilst having some flying experience is a definite advantage, it is not a prerequisite to joining any British Airways scheme but will give you a great insight into flying and help you decide if it really is the career for you.
Like many employers, we calculate the equivalent value of academic qualifications to understand whether the required standard has been met. Depending on your experience level this can vary greatly. Pilots selected for a cadet scheme generally complete their Commercial Licence training — including ground-school — with one of our partner flight training schools in approximately 18 months.
Type rating and line training will then take up to 3 months to complete. Generally wearing glasses does not prevent someone from becoming a pilot, this will be assessed by the Civil Aviation Authority Aeromedical Examiners during your initial medical examination. They will determine your suitability to hold a Class One Medical Certificate.
For all questions relating to medical suitability please see the CAA website. Essentially pilots bid for work on a seniority basis, once this work has been allocated you are free to swap trips with each other provided the roster remains legal and all work remains covered. Time away from home will depend on the fleet you operate, your seniority and whether you have elected to go onto a Part Time roster. Both short-haul and long-haul fleets will require some time "down route", which can vary from one night to over a week on the longest trips that are operated.
Some routes however will be there and back, allowing you to spend the evening back at home. As with all rosters these are subject to change. Salary and benefits for being employed as a pilot reflect the hard work and commitment of the individuals that we employ as flight crew. We have a discounted flight scheme, substantial pension and other benefits, including private healthcare schemes and corporate discounts. Salary generally increases with experience and may include a portion of flight pay, for each hour or flight worked, and an overnight expense allowance.
We employ pilots from all faiths and backgrounds and fully support everyone's right to practice their religion, however due to the nature of the job, we cannot guarantee any specific times, days or dates when a pilot will be able to carry out any specific rituals or observe rest periods. Most pilots find they are able to balance the needs of the job with their beliefs without great difficulty and can use the roster system to swap duties and make requests for leave and days off. If you have been cautioned, warned or convicted of a criminal offence other than parking offences we suggest you check whether you will be able to obtain an airside pass by visiting www.
You must also be able to obtain a US visa.
In order to be employed as a pilot with us you will also be required to provide a Criminal Record Check for every country in which you have been a resident, or worked in, for 6 months or more in the past 5 years. As a guide, areas shown in grey on this diagram will not be covered by our uniform when wearing a short-sleeved shirt.
No tattoos must be visible on the face, hands, neck or arms.